[excerpts from the GIS mapping in my forthcoming book, Republics of Difference: Racial and Religious Self-Governance in the Early Modern Iberian Atlantic (Oxford University Press)]
Two maps from fifteenth century Seville.
The first shows the city of Seville between 1440-1483, mapping the residences and workshops of a portion of its Muslim population. Despite numerous segregation ordinances, there was no functional Muslim or Jewish barrio until 1483. In that year, Jews were given orders to convert or leave Andalucía, and the Muslims — having lost their most powerful supporters — were mostly forced to live in the parish of San Pedro (Map 2).
Lima in 1613.
Below is a map drawn from my digitization of the 1613 census of Lima, carried out under the Viceroy Marqués de Montesclaros. This map indicates the density of indigenous populations across the city, and the ratio of men to women. It excludes Santiago del Cercado, a walled parish intended to house both temporary (mita) and some permanent indigenous residents. But the census and maps demonstrate that the majority of the indigenous population continued to live and work outside the Cercado, and that occupational placements in Spanish homes and workshops made the city extraordinarily integrated. Indigenous women’s early migration to the city via coerced or voluntary domestic service expedited their intimate knowledge of Spanish law and social organization, explaining why they might have been more active in notarial records and religious organizations than expected.